The Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is native to the swamps and bogs of northeastern North America. It belongs to the Heath, or Heather family (Ericaceae), which is a very widespread family of about 125 genera and about 3500 species! Members of the family occur from polar regions to the tropics in both hemispheres. The cranberry plant is described as a low-growing, woody perennial with small, oval leaves borne on fine, vine-like shoots. Horizontal stems, or runners, grow along the soil surface, rooting at intervals to form a dense mat. Its flower buds, formed on short, upright shoots, open from May to June and produce ripe fruit in late September to early October. In Maine, blossoms appear during the 1st to 2nd week of June, and berries are usually not fully ripe until the first week of October, which is when most Maine growers begin to harvest their beds.
[The following is taken partially from the “Cranberry Agriculture In Maine: Grower’s Guide – 1996 version”]:
The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) grows wild from the mountains of Georgia to the Canadian Maritimes, and as far west as Minnesota. It has been cultivated in the Cape Cod area since the early 1800s and was an active industry in Maine during much of the last century. The cultivated cranberry industry then spread to New Jersey by the 1830s, Wisconsin by the 1850s, and the Pacific Northwest by the 1880s. Many Maine farms with suitable land produced small plots of cranberries, mostly for home use and a small marketable surplus. The Maine commercial cranberry industry was virtually eliminated in the early 1900s by a combination of factors, including lack of adequate technology for frost protection, the spread of disease and pests, depressed demand during World War I, the increasing trend toward specialized farming, the replacement of fresh cranberries in the market with the new canned cranberry sauce, and its relative distance to markets. Cranberry production is a vital new industry in the State of Maine. It is a ‘new’ industry in the sense that it represents the rebirth of an industry that left the State in the first half of this century and until 1988 there were no commercial producers in the state. 1991 saw Maine’s first modern commercial harvest and by 1992 there were at least five growers with planted vines and several new plantations under development. There are now, as of 2010, thirty commercial cranberry farms in the state, with roughly 190 acres (mostly in Washington County), plus two or three brand new cranberry plantings planned for 2011.
A Little Cranberry History
- 1550: Native Americans use cranberries for food, dyes and medicine.
- 1620: Pilgrims learn to use cranberries from the Native Americans.
- 1683: Cranberry juice made by settlers.
- 1816: Captain Henry Hall first cultivated cranberries in Dennis, MA.
- 1820s: Cranberries shipped to Europe for sale.
- 1838: First record of ice sanding on bogs. Flooding firs tused to control insects and prevent frost damage.
- 1843: Eli Howes cultivated Howes variety of cranberries in East Dennis, MA.
- 1845: “An Act for the Protection of Cranberries on Gay Head” put forth by Gay Head Indians on Martha’s Vineyard.
- 1847: Cyprus Cahoon cultivated Early Black variety cranberries in Harwich, MA.
- 1850s: First cranberry scoops used for harvest. Water-harvesting tried, but abandoned. Seamen used cranberries to prevent scurvy at sea.
- 1854: First census on cranberry acreage – 197 acres in Barnstable County, MA.
- 1856: The Cranberry and its Culture published by Benjamin Eastwood.
- 1860s: Maine has over 600 acres of producing cranberry bogs.
- 1863: US Department of Agriculture created Massachusetts Agricultural College (University of Massachusetts) founded. Abraham Lincoln proclaims first national Thanksgiving.
- 1868: Standard 100 lb. barrel of cranberries sold for $0.58 in Philadelphia, PA.
- 1871: American Cranberry Growers’ Ass’n formed in Massachusetts.
- 1870s: Six quart pail used as standard picking measure.
- 1887: Snap scoop invented for younger vines by Daniel Lumbert.
- 1888: Cape Cod Cranberry Growers’ Ass’n formed in Massachusetts.
- 1906: Henry J. Franklin – Began formal agricultural research on cranberries.
- 1907: First market co-operative – New England Cranberry Sales Company founded.
- 1910: Cranberry Experiment Station research facility established – Wareham, MA. Dr. Henry J. Franklin named first director of Cranberry Experiment Station. More efficient rocker scoop used.
- 1912: Hayden cranberry separator patented. First cranberry sauce marketed, Hanson, MA.
- 1920: Oscar Terbo invented first mechanical ride-on dry-harvester known as Matthewson. Telephone frost warning system started.
- 1923: Bailey Separator patented to grade and separate cranberries by bouncing the berries.
- 1930: Ocean Spray formed as a grower-owned marketing cooperative – one of the three founding members was Marcus Urann, native of Sullivan, ME.
- 1930s: Women allowed to use scoops.
- 1947: Walk-behind mechanical dry harvesters replaced hand scooping.
- 1953: First million-barrel national crop.
- 1960s: First successful water harvesting Sprinkler systems installed on most bogs. Cranberry products diversify and market expands
- 1970s: Integrated Pest Management program used.
- 1983: Formal IPM programs developed.
- 1980s: International market developed for cranberries and cranberry products become ingredients in other products.
- 1989: Maine Cranberry Growers Ass’n formed.
- 1995: Crop of 4,200 barrels harvested in Maine.
- 1996: Dr. Irving Demoranville retires from Cranberry Experiment Station in Massachusetts; Per barrel return as much as $90.
- 1998: UMaine Cooperative Extension adds a cranberry position to run an IPM program for Maine’s cranberry industry
- 2002: Two independent studies find that antioxidants—which cranberries are high in—appear to provide some significant protection against Alzheimer’s disease
- 2009: Record yield of roughly 26,000 barrels harvested in Maine.
- 2012 and 2013: New back-to-back record Maine cranberry yields (35,729 barrels in 2012 and 35,870 barrels in 2013 (highest thus far in the state’s modern history) (1 barrel = 100 lbs).
Cranberry questions? Contact Charles Armstrong, Cranberry Professional. University of Maine Cooperative Extension.
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