Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 1 – June 24, 2016

June 24th, 2016 2:37 PM

Sweet CornSweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 1 – June 24, 2016
Click on photos to enlarge.

2016 SWEET CORN PEST SEASON BEGINS!

European Corn Borer Active in Early Fields

The 2016 University of Maine Cooperative Extension Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for sweet corn is underway. More than twenty volunteer farms are serving as pest monitoring and demonstration sites, with fields in North Berwick, Wells, Dayton, Cape Elizabeth, New Gloucester, Poland Spring, Auburn, Lewiston, Sabattus, Nobleboro, Warren, Monmouth, Wales, Wayne, Oxford, Farmington, Levant, Stillwater, Garland and East Corinth. Pheromone traps are being set up at these farms to monitor the adult (moth) stages of European corn borer, corn earworm and fall armyworm, and we have started scouting corn fields for feeding injury by insect larvae. The information we collect will be shared through this newsletter along with management recommendations. We will share the information we collect at these sites along with management recommendations every week during the season through this newsletter and blog. If you would prefer to receive this newsletter via e-mail, give us a call at 207.933.2100 or send an e-mail message to: pamela.stpeter@maine.edu.

SITUATION
A dry start to the season allowed many farmers to get started planting early, but cool temperatures have moderated plant growth. Early plantings in southern Maine and plantings started under plastic or row covers are just starting to tassel, and we may see some silking corn next week. While we are just setting up pheromone traps for moths, European corn borer larvae are already active. Growers with early corn should be on the lookout for feeding damage in their fields.

European Corn Borer Damage on Pre-tassel Stage corn

European Corn Borer Damage on Pre-tassel, photo by David Handley

European corn borer: Pheromone traps for moths are now being set up in the grassy borders around cornfields. We have started scouting pre-tassel fields in southern Maine and found some feeding in the leaves and emerging tassels. The larvae are very small and recently emerged from egg masses laid over the past two weeks. The egg masses are small and look like a clump of overlapping fish scales on the undersides of corn leaves. European corn borer overwinters in Maine, and is usually the first pest to become a significant problem. To monitor corn borer, we scout 100 corn plants in each field, examining twenty plants in a row at five different locations. This provides a good estimate of the total amount of injury in a field.

In the early stages, European corn borer feeding damage looks like small “pinholes” in the leaves. Whorl stage corn only needs to be sprayed if fresh feeding injury is found on 30% or more of the plants scouted in a field. Once the corn reaches the pre-tassel stage, the control threshold is lowered to 15% because larvae feeding on the later stages are more likely to move into the ears. On the tassels, feeding damage first appears as chewing and brown waste found in the small florets. After the tassel has emerged from the stalk, the larvae chew into the stalk just below it, often causing the tassel to fall over. Sprays during the pre-tassel stage, when both moths and larvae are present, reduce the opportunity for larvae to move into the stalks and ears of the plant. Once the larvae are in the stalks they are protected from sprays. Good spray coverage of the entire plant provides the most effective kill of larvae as they move from one part of the plant to another. Rotating the type of insecticide used also improves control. Materials registered for controlling European corn borer include Bacillus thuringiensis products (XenTari®, Dipel DF®), Avaunt®, Coragen®, Warrior®, Lannate®, Baythroid®, Asana®, Radiant®, Delta Gold®, Mustang®, Sevin XLR® and Larvin®.

Growers should start scouting whorl stage corn for feeding injury now. Once corn reaches the silk stage, sprays may be based on the number of corn borer moths caught in pheromone traps rather than feeding injury. European corn borer moths will lay eggs on flag leaves of silking corn, and the larvae can move into the ears without leaving visible feeding injury that would be noticed when scouting. If more than five moths are caught during a week in a field with silking corn, a spray is recommended. Varieties of corn genetically modified to produce the Bt toxin (e.g. Bt corn, Attribute® varieties), should not need to be sprayed to control European corn borer.

Corn Earworm Moth

Corn Earworm Moth, photo by David Handley

Corn earworm: We are now setting up pheromone traps around the state for corn earworm moths. Corn earworm generally appears in Maine in early July, but the actual date varies greatly. The arrival of this pest is only a concern for fields with corn in the silk stage. Fields not yet in silk do not need to be protected from corn earworm. When corn earworm moths start being caught at a site, all silking corn in the fields should be protected with a spray. These moths lay eggs on the fresh silks and the larvae move directly into the ears of corn. When corn earworm moths cannot find silking corn to deposit their eggs on, they may lay eggs on the leaves or tassels of younger corn. The larvae will feed on the foliage and tassels, similar to armyworm, until the ears become available. When larvae are found feeding on younger corn, the damage is accounted for, along with any borer or armyworm damage, to determine if a spray is warranted.

Fall armyworm: This is usually the last serious corn insect pest to arrive in Maine. The moths must fly in from southern over-wintering sites, and tend to lay their eggs on the youngest corn available. When the larvae hatch, they chew large, ragged holes in the leaves, and may bore into developing ears. Larvae may also move into the ears through the silk channel, behaving similarly to corn earworm. Pheromone trap catches will indicate if there is a threat to silking corn. However, corn will usually be on a spray program for corn earworm when fall armyworm is present, and both insects would be controlled.

Fall Armyworm Moths

Fall Armyworm Moths (female right, male left), photo by James Dill

Do-It-Yourself IPM: To get the most accurate information about the pest situation on your farm you should monitor the fields yourself on a regular basis. Pheromone traps and lures are available that can give you an accurate, early warning of the arrival of all of the major insect pests. Traps and lures can be purchased from pest management supply companies such as Gempler’s (1.800.382.8473) or Great Lakes IPM (517.268.5693).

To learn more about IPM scouting techniques, insect identification and control thresholds, order the fact sheet Managing Insect Pests of Sweet Corn available from the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Color pictures are provided to help with insect identification, and a chart with spray thresholds is supplied to post near your sprayer for easy reference. You can download a copy from the Cooperative Extension Publications website or call the Pest Management Office at 1.800.287.0279.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                            491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259         Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

IPM Web Pages:
http://extension.umaine.edu/ipm/
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/sweet_corn.htm
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks

Published and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the State of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 4 – June 10, 2016

June 20th, 2016 1:04 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 4 – June 10, 2016
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SPIDER MITE AND TARNISHED PLANT BUG NUMBERS CLIMB

Southern Fields Nearing Harvest

Situation:
Some much-needed rain this week should help size-up berries that are nearing harvest in southern Maine. Hail however, was an unwanted addition to some storms and has caused some significant localized crop damage. Northern fields still have late varieties in bloom, and may still need protection against tarnished plant bug and gray mold infection. A few fruit are being harvested for stands from plasticulture plantings and fields put under row covers this spring.

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper”
Most fields in Southern Maine are now beyond early bloom stage, when clipper can have an economic impact. If your fields still have late varieties in early bloom, you should continue scouting for clipper and apply controls if significant damage is noted to the buds. Be aware the clippers will move on to raspberries and blackberries and clip off their buds once the strawberries have come into bloom.

Large Tarnished Plant Bug Nymph

Third Instar Tarnished Plant Bug Nymph, photo by David Handley

Tarnished plant bug activity has been increasing in southern Maine this week, with two sites over the recommended spray threshold. More northern sites are still seeing very little, if any, activity. Continue to scout for the small, green nymphs until the primary (king) berries begin to color. Remember, these can build up fast. The threshold for nymphs is 4 or more flower clusters infested per 30 clusters sampled. Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include malathion, Assail®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, and PyGanic®.  Thionex® is also labeled on strawberries for tarnished plant bug and spider mites, but this registration will soon expire.  All supplies must be used up by July 31, 2016.

Two-spotted spider mites continue to be the most widespread concern this week, with mites being found in nearly every field, and over the recommended spray threshold at three locations. Mites can build up very rapidly under warm, dry conditions. If 25% of leaves sampled  (e.g. 15 out of 60) have any mites, a spray should be applied.

Gray Mold on Strawberries

Gray Mold on Strawberries, photo by James Dill

Diseases: Many fields are getting ready for a second or third application of fungicide to prevent gray mold, in anticipation of weekend rains, which could result in more fungal spores being released to infect remaining flowers. Two to three sprays of fungicide through the bloom period are typically required to provide good protection.

Anthracnose fruit rot could be a threat when fields are wet during fruit development, especially under warmer temperatures, such as is often seen with plants grown on black plastic mulch. It may be best to use a fungicide product that offers control of both gray mold and anthracnose, such as Pristine® or Cabrio®.

Leather rot (Phytopthora cactorum) could also appear in fields if standing water is prevalent for an extended time following heavy rains or overhead irrigation. Aliette®, Agri-Phos® or Phostrol® applied during fruit development can help prevent leather rot when the risk of this disease is high. Fungicides typically used for gray mold are generally not effective on anthracnose.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating.  Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.  A Member of the University of Maine System.

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

 

 

 

 

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 3 – June 3, 2106

June 20th, 2016 12:25 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 3 – June 3, 2016
Click on photos to enlarge.

STRAWBERRY INSECT AND DISEASE PRESSURE LOW

Spider Mites Over Threshold in Several Fields

Vegetable and Berry Growers Twilight Meeting
Thursday, June 9, 2016 at 4:00 p.m.
McDougal’s Orchard in Springvale, Maine

Situation:
Continued dry weather has kept fungus disease pressure very low. Insect populations have also been low this week, but mite pressure has been increasing. Early varieties are now showing green fruit in southern Maine, while late varieties are now coming into bloom.

REMINDER: Twilight meeting, Thursday night
The University of Maine Cooperative Extension and the Maine Vegetable and Small Fruit Growers Association will hold a twilight meeting at McDougal’s Orchard in Springvale on Thursday, June 9 at 4:00 p.m. This will be a joint meeting with the Maine State Pomological Society.  Trevor Hardy of Brookdale Farm and George Hamilton from the University of New Hampshire will be on hand to discuss the latest developments in irrigation equipment for fruit and vegetable growers. We will tour some of the orchard and berry plantings at the farm, courtesy of Ellen and Jack McAdam, and see some of the new deer fence. In addition, we’ll discuss the upcoming season and pest management issues facing vegetable and berry growers this year.  McDougal Orchard is located at 201 Hanson Ridge Road in Springvale, Maine.  You can visit their website at: http://www.mcdougalorchards.com/index.php.

Clipper Beetle on Strawberry Bud

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” Most fields in Southern Maine are now beyond early bloom stage, when clipper can have an economic impact. However there may be some late blooming varieties in more northern sites that could still see significant damage from clipper; so scout any fields/varieties that have not yet reached full bloom, looking for clipped buds and/or live adults. If there are more than an average of 1.2 clipped buds per two feet of row, or live clippers are present, a spray should be applied. Insecticide options for clipper include Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Sevin® and PyGanic®.

Tarnished plant bug activity has been very low this week, with no fields over the recommended spray threshold. The nymphs can still cause damage beyond the bloom stage, so continue to scout for them until the primary (king) berries begin to color. The threshold for nymphs is 4 or more flower clusters infested per 30 clusters sampled. Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include malathion, Assail®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, and PyGanic®.

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Two-spotted Spider Mites, photo by David Handley

Two-spotted spider mites have been over threshold in several fields this week, which is to be expected under prolonged warm, dry conditions. It is important to scout for mites regularly, as they can build up very rapidly. If 25% of leaves sampled  (e.g. 15 out of 60) have any mites, a spray should be applied. Chemical control options for two-spotted spider mites include Acramite®, Savey®, Zeal®, Vendex®, Oberon®, Brigade®, and Danitol®.  Be sure to use enough liquid and pressure in the spray to get good coverage on the undersides of the leaves.

Diseases: Fields in southern Maine are getting ready for a second application of fungicide to prevent gray mold, in anticipation of weekend rains, which could result in fungal spores being released to infect remaining flowers. Two to three sprays of fungicide are typically required to provide good protection. The first spray is usually applied at 5-10% bloom, followed by a second application at petal fall.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating.  Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.  A Member of the University of Maine System.

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

 

 

 

 

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 2 – May 27, 2016

June 20th, 2016 12:03 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 2 – May 27, 2016
Click on photos to enlarge.

STRAWBERRY PESTS ENJOYING EARLY BLOOMING FIELDS

Clippers, and Spider Mites Over Threshold this Week

Vegetable and Berry Growers Twilight Meeting
Thursday, June 9, 2016 at 4:00 p.m.
McDougal’s Orchard in Springvale, Maine

Situation:
While dry weather this spring may reduce worries about gray mold pressure, it is also a concern for fields that have experienced winter injury.  Winter injury damages the plants vascular system, reducing the plants ability to take up water. Dry conditions make this problem worse as injured plants become drought stressed.  To ease the effects of winter injury, make sure the plants are getting plenty of water; through irrigation if rainfall is lacking. Once fruit have started to develop, strawberry plants should receive one to two inches of water per week. Early varieties are now in bloom in southern Maine, while later varieties have flower buds emerging from the crowns.

Twilight Meeting
The University of Maine Cooperative Extension and the Maine Vegetable and Small Fruit Growers Association will hold a twilight meeting at McDougal’s Orchard in Springvale on Thursday, June 9 at 4:00 p.m. This will be a joint meeting with the Maine State Pomological Society.  Trevor Hardy of Brookdale Farm will be on hand to discuss the latest developments in irrigation equipment for fruit and vegetable growers, and George Hamilton from the University of New Hampshire will be there to talk about good sprayer calibration. We will have an opportunity to tour some of the orchard and berry plantings at the farm, courtesy of Ellen and Jack McAdam, and see some of the new deer-control fencing installed with the help of a federal program.  In addition, we’ll discuss the upcoming season and pest management issues facing vegetable and berry growers this year.  We anticipate that one pesticide applicator recertification credit will be awarded for the meeting. Hold the date! McDougal Orchard is located at 201 Hanson Ridge Road in Springvale Maine.  You can visit their website at:  http://www.mcdougalorchards.com/index.php.

Clipper Injury

Clipper Injury, Photo by David Handley

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” is active in most of the fields we’ve scouted. We are seeing feeding signs on open flowers and clipped buds on early blooming varieties. We expect clippers to become more prevalent as later varieties start coming into bloom. You should start scouting your fields for clipped buds now. Insecticide options for clipper include Lorsban®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Sevin® and PyGanic®.

Tarnished plant bug activity has been fairly low so far this season.  We have seen adults in some fields, and found nymphs in about half of the fields, in one case over the spray threshold. The nymphs can be hard to find, especially if the plants are wet. Young nymphs are very small (2 mm), active, yellow-green insects.  It is important to scout for them regularly, as they can appear very quickly. The threshold for nymphs is 4 or more flower clusters infested per 30 sampled. Start scouting any field with open flowers now.  Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include malathion, Assail®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, and PyGanic®.

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Two-spotted Spider Mites, photo by David Handley

Two-spotted spider mites have been found in most fields this week, but were over threshold only in one field where row covers had been used. Mites typically proliferate under hot, dry conditions, and we often first find them in plantings under row covers.  But any plantings that harbored a high mite population last fall are also likely to see a problem with mites this spring. It is important to scout for mites regularly. If 25% of leaves sampled  (e.g. 15 out of 60) have any mites, a spray should be applied. Chemical control options for two-spotted spider mites include Acramite®, Savey®, Zeal®, Vendex®, Oberon®, Brigade®, Danitol®, Thionex® and JMS Stylet oil® (oils will cause plant injury if used in combination with captan or within 14 days of an application of sulfur).  Be sure to use enough liquid and pressure in the spray to get good coverage on the undersides of the leaves.

Cyclamen mites:  We have seen three fields with light symptoms of cyclamen mite injury this week. Infested plants show weak growth and shrunken, crinkled leaves. These mites are very small and reside in the crown of the strawberry plant, feeding on the developing leaves and flower buds. They are very hard to see, even with magnification. Portal®, Kelthane® or Thionex® can be effective, but must be applied in lots of water to be sure that the material is carried down into the crowns where these mites reside. Thionex® will no longer be available for use on strawberries after July of 2016.

White grubs: Grubs have been found in some fields this spring. Infested plants are stunted and often wilt during the heat of the day. These grubs are the larvae of Japanese beetle, European chafer and Asiatic garden beetle. They have legs and a swollen anterior (rear end). Admire Pro® can be applied for control of white grubs in the spring. It should be applied within two hours of irrigation or rainfall to be sure the chemical gets into the root zone, and it requires a 14-day pre-harvest interval.

Diseases: As the fields come into bloom it is time to protect the flowers against infection by spores of the gray mold fungus, Botrytis cinerea. Fruit infections take place through the flowers, so gray mold control efforts must be focused on the bloom period. Two to three sprays of fungicide are typically required to provide good protection. The first spray is usually applied at 5-10% bloom, followed by a second application at petal fall. Additional applications may be applied if there is significant rainfall between or following these two sprays.

Leather rot (Phytopthora cactorum) may become a problem in fields where standing water is common during bloom and fruit development, especially if the fields were not mulched last fall. Incidence of leather rot can be reduced by applying straw mulch between the rows to prevent berries from touching the soil and reducing soil splashing onto the berries. Foliar sprays of Aliette®, Agri-Phos® or Phostrol® may be applied during bloom and fruit development to prevent leather rot when there has been excess moisture in a field, especially those with a history of this problem.

Powdery mildew:  We have not yet seen symptoms of this fungus disease in fields. It tends to be more prevalent under warm, humid conditions. It may first appear as purple or red blotches on the leaf and flower stems. Later, upward curling leaves and white, powdery growth on the undersides of the leaves becomes evident. Check your fields for pinkish purple leaf and flower stem lesions as new leaves emerge. Pristine®, Cabrio®, Topsin-M®, captan, Procure®, Torino® and JMS Stylet oil® are registered to control powdery mildew.

Angular Leaf Spot

Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot, Photo by David Handley

Angular leaf spot is a bacterial disease characterized by small water-soaked spots on the leaves, which may turn yellow or black. The symptoms start on the lower leaves but spread throughout the foliage when spores are splashed up by rain or irrigation water. Infections can cause blackening of the berry stems and caps. This disease is favored by extended cool, wet weather with night temperatures close to freezing. Irrigating fields for frost protection encourages development and spread of the disease. Hydrogen dioxide (OxiDate®) may have some activity against angular leaf spot when used on strawberries as part of a gray mold management program.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259          Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                            1.800.287.0279

Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating.  Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.  A Member of the University of Maine System.

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

 

 

 

 

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 5 – June 17, 2016

June 17th, 2016 2:19 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 5 – June 17, 2016
Click on photos to enlarge.

STRAWBERRY HARVEST BEGINS IN SOUTHERN MAINE

Watch for Birds, Slugs, Sap Beetles

Situation:
Strawberry harvest is underway in much of southern Maine, and should be into full swing next week. So far, the crop looks good. Very low pest pressure and good growing conditions, aside from a lack of water, have resulted in good fruit quality. Berry size may be a bit small, especially in fields that have not been irrigated. It’s time to keep an eye out for ripe fruit pests, including birds, sap beetles and slugs.

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” is no longer a threat in fields in the southern and mid-state regions. There may be a few fields in northern Maine that still have some susceptible flower buds on late blooming varieties, and those should continue to be scouted. A reminder: clippers will move on to raspberries and blackberries and clip off their buds once the strawberries have come into bloom.

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Two-spotted Spider Mites, photo by David Handley

Tarnished plant bug activity is still quite low in strawberry fields this week, with very few sites finding any nymphs, and no fields over the spray threshold. Northern fields should continue to be scouted for nymphs until the primary (king) berries begin to color.

Two-spotted spider mites are still prevalent in strawberry fields this week. Nearly all fields scouted had mites and four locations were over the 25% infestation spray threshold. If dry weather continues, mite build-ups will continue to be a problem. If infested fields are now being harvested, be sure to check miticide labels for re-entry and days to harvest restrictions, or delay sprays until harvest is over.

Sap beetle on strawberry

Picnic Beetle (left) on Strawberry, photo by James Dill

Sap beetles can become a problem in ripe fruit, especially in dry years. Growers should keep an eye out for damage as the berries start to ripen. The 1/8-inch long, dark brown beetles chew small holes in ripening fruit, similar to slug injury. They may be found in the holes they’ve chewed, but often drop to the ground when disturbed. The best management strategy for sap beetles is good sanitation. Keep the field free of overripe fruit by picking often and thoroughly. Insecticide sprays for this pest can be effective, but should be a last resort during the harvest period. Assail® Brigade®, Dibrom® and PyGanic® are registered for control of sap beetles with pre-harvest intervals ranging from 12 to 24 hours. Read the product label carefully for this and other application instructions and restrictions.

Birds, specifically cedar waxwings, will soon be moving into fields to feed on ripe fruit, if they haven’t already. These birds can destroy many of the early ripening fruit, despite our best efforts to scare them off. Only by keeping a near constant presence in the field and eliminating roosting sites can you reduce the damage. Songbirds are protected by law and should not be killed. However, permits may be issued for killing birds by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service if they receive a recommendation for such a permit from the Maine Wildlife Services Office (part of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) in Augusta, along with an application from the grower. There is a $50 fee for the application, and it may take over a month for the permit to be processed. However, the permit is good for one year, so if you have problems this season, you may consider applying for a permit this winter, which would allow you an option to kill birds, if necessary, next season. The Wildlife Damage Office has recommendations for managing birds in crops, and also has some control options available through their office. For more information on permits or bird control contact the office in Augusta at 207.629.5181. The office is located in the Capital West Business Center at 79 Leighton Road in Augusta.

Slugs may be a problem in some fields this season. Although they tend to be worse in wet springs, especially if they follow a wet fall. Moist conditions and thick mulch tend to encourage the presence of slugs. Slugs usually feed at night, leaving large holes and tunnels in ripening fruit. Baits such as Deadline® and Sluggo® offer some control of slugs, but should be used prior to fruit ripening. Pay close attention to label instructions and precautions. Baits should also be applied to the fields in mid-September if slugs have been a problem, to reduce egg laying.

Diseases: Fruit rot diseases have not been prevalent in fields now being harvested. Dry weather and timely fungicide applications appear to have keep fungal problems at bay. Fields that are still in flower may still need additional protection, should wet weather finally move in.

Strawberry Harvest

Strawberry Harvest, photo by David Handley

Annual Pre-Harvest Checklist for Pick-Your-Own

It’s that time again! As harvest approaches, its time to make sure that your farm is ready to provide your customers with the best possible picking experience. Take our annual review below to evaluate your customer readiness.

  • Your phone message and web/Facebook pages with picking conditions and opening and closing times are regularly updated.
  • Signs to the farm are neat and easy to read.
  • There is easy access to the fields and plenty of parking.
  • Someone is ready to greet customers and offer parking instructions and directions to the field.
  • Access to the field is free of hazards.
  • Transportation is provided for the elderly and disabled.
  • The rules regarding picking are clearly posted.
  • Someone is in the field to show customers where to pick and to answer questions.
  • There are plenty of picking containers available.
  • Clean restroom and hand washing facilities are available.
  • Someone is available to help customers carry fruit out of the field.
  • The checkouts are fast and efficient.
  • Beverages are available.
  • Shade and seats are available for customers wanting to rest.
  • The help are friendly and knowledgeable.

A friendly, clean, and organized atmosphere will leave a lasting impression on your customers, encouraging them to come back and to recommend your farm to their friends.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259         Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating. Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment. A Member of the University of Maine System.

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 1 – May 20, 2016

May 20th, 2016 1:30 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 1 – May 20, 2016
Click on photos to enlarge.

2016 STRAWBERRY PEST MANAGEMENT SEASON BEGINS

Long, Cold Winter Delays Early Spring Growth

Situation:
The winter was slow to get started, provided only intermittent snow cover and got very cold just before giving up. It has left some strawberry plantings with significant winter injury, while others seem to have come through in good shape. The distribution and degree of injury is like the winter, very variable from site to site; although it seems Maine growers may have actually experienced less damage than some of their southern New England counterparts. If winter injury is present, cutting into the crowns of injured plants will reveal dark brown discoloration in the internal tissue. Helping plantings recover from winter injury involves compensating for the damaged vascular system. Make sure the plants get plenty of water, especially in this dry period; and it may help to apply extra nutrients to encourage root growth and flower development, including nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. While we do not recommend heavy nitrogen fertilizer applications in the spring, up to 20 pounds of actual N (e.g. 125 lb. calcium nitrate) may improve early spring growth.

2015-2016 New England Small Fruit Management Guides are available at Highmoor Farm. The guide contains the latest information on management options for small fruit pests as well as cultural information. Cost of the guide is $13.00 plus $2.61 postage for a total of $15.61.

To order the guides, please send your check made payable to UMaine Cooperative Extension mailed to: Highmoor Farm, P.O. Box 179, Monmouth, Maine 04259, attention Pam St. Peter. For more information, contact Pam St. Peter at 933.2100 or pamela.stpeter@maine.edu.

We will begin scouting strawberry fields for major insect pests next week, including volunteer farms in North Berwick, Wells, Cape Elizabeth, Poland Spring, New Gloucester, Dresden, Monmouth, Wayne, and Farmington, and will be reporting our findings through this newsletter and blog on a weekly basis until harvest time. You can also get quick access to this information on the Pest Management web page at http://umaine.edu/ipm/.

The best way to manage strawberry pests is to scout your own fields regularly and often. You should start scouting regularly as soon as flower buds emerge from the crown. You should be able to identify the major pests and their damage, and be able to determine if control measures are necessary. To properly scout your fields you may want a copy of the Strawberry Production Guide for the Northeast, Midwest and Eastern Canada. This contains detailed information on strawberry pest identification and monitoring, and also provides information on all other aspects of strawberry production. It may be purchased for $45.00 per copy from the University of Maine Cooperative Extension Publications Catalog online.

Clipper Beetle on Strawberry Bud

Clipper Beetle on Strawberry Bud, photo by James Dill

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” are becoming active as flower buds begin to emerge. We have had reports of clipper activity within other New England states and in southern Maine. The clipper is a small weevil, which girdles strawberry flower buds, causing them to dry up and fall off the flower stalk. Scout for damage by counting the number of clipped buds in two feet of row length at five different locations in a field. If the average number of clipped buds per two-foot sample exceeds 1.2, or if live clippers are found, control measures are recommended. Damage is usually first noticed at the edges of the field. Border sprays may be effective in keeping this insect from becoming a problem in larger fields. Fields with a history of clipper problems will typically exceed threshold nearly every year. Insecticide options for clipper include Lorsban®, Brigade®, Sevin® and PyGanic®.

First Instar Tarnished Plant Bug Nymph

First Instar Tarnished Plant Bug Nymph, Photo by David Handley

Tarnished plant bugs adults will soon be laying eggs. Strawberries are one of their preferred hosts at this time of year. Once the eggs start to hatch, we’ll find the nymphs feeding in the flowers. The nymphs are small, active, yellow-green insects. It is important to scout for them regularly, as they can appear very quickly in warm weather. Tarnished plant bugs feed on the open strawberry flowers, causing the berries to have seedy ends. To scout for the nymphs shake 30 flower clusters (six clusters in five different locations) over a plate. If four or more of the clusters out of the 30 sampled have any nymphs, control measures should be taken. Be on the alert and scout your fields now! Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include malathion, Brigade®, Danitol®, and PyGanic®.

Cyclamen Mite Damage on Strawberry Plant

Cyclamen Mite Damage on Strawberry Plant, photo by David Handley

Cyclamen mites: Plants showing weak growth and yellow, pinkish or blackened, crinkled leaves may be infested with cyclamen mite. Cyclamen mites are very small, smaller than spider mites, and reside in the crown of the strawberry plant feeding on the developing leaves and flower buds. They are very hard to see, even with magnification. Infested plants have shrunken distorted leaves and flower stalks, and produce few, if any, marketable fruit. Miticides such as Kelthane® and Portal® can be effective, but must be applied in lots of water to be sure that the material is carried down into the crowns where these mites reside. Thionex® may also be used, but registration of this product on strawberries will run out in July of this year.

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Two-spotted Spider Mites, photo by David Handley

Two-spotted spider mites can be a problem in the spring, especially for plants under row covers. This is often where we first find mites. Spider mites will reproduce rapidly when warmer weather arrives, so it is important to scout for them regularly. Spider mites feed on the undersides of strawberry leaves, rasping the plant tissue and sucking the sap. Infested leaves will develop yellow flecking and a bronzed appearance. The plants become weakened and stunted. Fields that have had excessive nitrogen fertilizer and/or row covers tend to be most susceptible to mite injury. To scout for mites, collect 60 leaves from various locations in the field and examine the undersides for the presence of mites. Mites are very small – you may need a hand lens to see them. Chemical control options for two-spotted spider mites include Acramite®, Portal®, Nealta® Savey®, Zeal®, Vendex®, Oberon®, Brigade®, Danitol® and JMS Stylet Oil® (oils will cause plant injury if used in combination with captan or within 14 days of an application of sulfur).

Strawberry Root Weevil Grub

Strawberry Root Weevil Grub, photo by David Handley

Root weevil management
Fields that were infested with root weevils last summer should be inspected for grubs this spring. Infested plants appear week and stunted, usually in somewhat circular patches in a field. Digging under the plants will reveal small (1/4”-1/2”) crescent-shaped legless grubs. Typically, the grubs begin to pupate when the plants are in bloom. A soil drench of Platinum® (thiamethoxam) insecticide during the spring and/or fall when the grubs are active in the soil can provide control. However, Platinum® has a 50 day pre-harvest interval, so it is too late for applications in most fruiting fields this year. Platinum® may also be used as a pre-plant or planting treatment for root weevils. It is not too late to put on an application of nematodes to control the grubs (optimal timing is about mid-May). Two species of nematodes appear to offer the best control of root weevil grubs. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) appears to be the best candidate for control of root weevils when the soil temperature is above 60 degrees, and is available from Green Methods, www.greenmethods.com/site-info; the Integrated Biocontrol Network, www.biconet.com; and Koppert Biological Systems, www.koppertonline.com.

Nematodes are living organisms and they can be killed if they are misapplied. Order nematodes ahead of time and be ready to apply them through a sprayer or irrigation soon after they arrive. Refrigerate them if you cannot apply right away. Do not apply nematodes using a sprayer with a piston pump. Use clean equipment, removing all screens finer than 50-mesh. Apply nematodes in early morning or evening in a high volume of water to already moist soil, pre-irrigating if needed. Apply another ¼ inch of irrigation after application to wash them onto and into the soil. Researchers and suppliers recommended 250 (if banded in the row) to 500 million per acre, at a cost of $100-$200 per acre depending on volume and source. Nematodes tend to work best in heavily infested fields. Strawberry plants can recover their vigor remarkably well if crown feeding has not occurred and diseases haven’t taken over the roots.

Once the adults become active in July, bifenthrin (Brigade®) will provide some control if used at the highest labeled rates. The best timing for this spray is at night during the peak feeding activity of adults, before they start laying eggs, or about the time harvest ends.

White Grub

White Grub, Photo by David Handley

White grubs: Weak growth noted in fields this spring may also be the result of white grubs feeding on the roots of newer plantings. These grubs are the larvae of beetles, including European chafer and Asiatic garden beetle. They differ from the larvae of black vine weevil and strawberry root weevil in that they have legs and a swollen anterior (rear end), and they tend to be larger. Their feeding weakens the plants by reducing the number of roots. The grubs can be found by pulling up weak plants and sifting through the soil that surrounded the roots. Controlling white grubs once they have become established in a field can be difficult. These tend to be more of a problem in new fields that have been planted following a grass rotation crop, because the adults prefer to lay their eggs in sod. Admire Pro® and Platinum® insecticides are labeled for control of white grubs and should be applied within two hours of irrigation or rainfall to be sure the chemical gets into the root zone. Admire Pro® requires a 14 day to harvest interval, while Platinum® requires a 50 day pre-harvest interval.

Gray Mold on Strawberries

Gray Mold on Strawberries, photo by James Dill

Diseases: Bloom is a critical time to protect strawberry fruit against gray mold caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, especially when conditions have been damp. Two to three sprays of fungicide during bloom are typically required to provide good protection against this disease. If you tank mix insecticides and fungicides, avoid spraying when bees are active. Botrytis cinerea overwinters on old leaves and plant debris. Fruit infections take place almost exclusively through the flowers, so gray mold control efforts must be focused on the bloom period. If the bloom period is dry and/or good fungicide coverage is maintained, incidence of gray mold at harvest should be low.

There are several excellent fungicide choices for control of gray mold in strawberries. Elevate® (fenhexamid) has good to excellent activity against Botrytis. Captevate® is a pre-mix of captan and fenhexamid and has a broader spectrum of activity than Elevate® alone. Switch® (cyprodinil and fludioxonil), Scala® (pyramethanil) and Pristine® (pyraclostrobin and boscalid) are also excellent products for gray mold control. Topsin M® + captan is also a good fungicide combination, but remember that captan is strictly a protectant and can be washed off by rain or irrigation water. Thiram is similarly effective but also susceptible to wash-off.

The fungicides Cabrio® (pyraclostrobin) and Abound® (azoxystrobin) are NOT suitable for gray mold control, but are effective against anthracnose and other fruit rot and leaf spot diseases. All fungicides mentioned above have a 0-day pre-harvest interval, except Topsin M® (1 day) and thiram (3 days). Remember to alternate fungicides with different modes of action for resistance management purposes.

Red Stele Symptoms on Strawberry Plant

Red Stele Symptoms on Strawberry Plant, photo by David Handley

Red stele root rot
Although early spring conditions have not been especially conducive to red stele development, you should still be alert for this root rot if any fields appear to be weak, stunted or dying. To diagnose red stele, pull up a few plants that look weak and scrape the roots of these plants to see if the center of the root, known as the stele, is rusty red in color, instead of the normal white. The red color would indicate an infection. Red stele is caused by Phytophthora fragariae, a soil pathogen that infects roots when soils are wet with temperatures around 50°F. The pathogen grows into the roots causing the plants to become weak, stunted and to eventually die. Symptoms are most evident in the spring, and can be mistaken for winter injury. Ridomil Gold®, Alliette® or Phostrol® are fungicides that can be applied in the late fall or early spring for control of red stele. Many varieties have some level of resistance to the disease, but the most effective management strategy is to plant only into well-drained soils, and/or plant onto raised beds.

Powdery Mildew

Powdery Mildew, photo by David Handley

Powdery mildew: This fungus disease may first show up as purple or red blotches on the leaf petioles and flower stems in strawberry fields. Most of us are more familiar with the later symptoms of upward curling of the leaves and white, powdery growth on the undersides of the leaves. Check your fields for pinkish purple leaf and flower stem lesions as new leaves emerge. Pristine®, Cabrio®, Topsin-M®, captan, Procure®, Torino® and JMS Stylet Oil® are presently registered to control powdery mildew.

Angular leaf spot is a bacterial disease that is characterized by translucent leaf spots that may turn yellow and eventually black. The symptoms tend to start on the lower leaves but may move upwards as bacterial spores are splashed up by rain or irrigation water. Infection of the calyxes may result in a blackening of the berry stems and caps, reducing their marketability. Bacterial angular leaf spot is favored by extended cool, wet weather and nights with temperatures close to freezing. Frequent irrigation for frost protection can greatly encourage the development and spread of the disease, as will extended cool, damp weather. Susceptibility to this disease appears to vary significantly between varieties.

Angular Leaf Spot

Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot, Photo by David Handley

The copper-containing material Kocide®, can reduce the spread of this disease. Start spray applications before bloom to prevent multiplication of the bacteria on the leaves before they jump to the berry caps. Application of copper sprays after bloom can result in fruit injury and is not recommended. Hydrogen dioxide (OxiDate®) may also have some activity against angular leaf spot when used on strawberries as part of a gray mold management program.

Other Berries:

Raspberries are showing significant winter injury in some fields, especially among the less hardy varieties. Often more winter injury becomes apparent once the floricanes start to flower. Tip dieback often occurs due to winter damage to the vascular tissue within the canes.

Highbush blueberries are also showing significant winter injury in some fields, especially in more southern regions. Dark brown or black discoloration of last year’s shoot growth, and/or shriveling of the shoot tissue indicate winter injury and desiccation, frequently resulting in death of the flower buds. Mummy berry spores will soon start to be active. Expect infection periods to occur over the next few weeks, anytime there is a significant moisture event (rain, mist, fog). Protectant fungicides for mummy berry include Indar®, Orbit®, and Quilt Excel®.

The Twilight Meeting will be held on June 9th at MacDougal Orchards in Springvale. This meeting will focus on irrigation and will feature Trevor Hardy from Brookdale Farms to discuss irrigation options for fruit and vegetable growers. George Hamilton of the University of New Hampshire will also be on hand to discuss calibration of sprayers. We’ll have a tour of some of the fruit plantings on the farm and see the new deer exclusion project being set up around the orchard. We’ll also discuss the pest situation around the state, and the current crop outlook. The meeting will run from 4:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. More details will follow. Hope to see you in Springvale.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Ave
Monmouth, ME 04259         Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                          1.800.287.0279

Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating. Cooperative Extension and other agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment. A Member of the University of Maine System.

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

Pick a day for Maine Vegetable and Fruit School

March 9th, 2016 10:43 AM

New grape varieties and management options for the spotted wing Drosophila will be among the topics covered at the Maine Vegetable and Fruit School to be held in Portland and Bangor in March.

Farmers can attend the one-day school from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. March 15 at Seasons Event and Conference Center, 155 Riverside St., Portland, or March 16 at Bangor Motor Inn Conference Center, 701 Hogan Road, Bangor.

Nourse Farms in Massachusetts is the sponsor and University of Maine Cooperative Extension and the Maine Vegetable and Small Fruit Growers Association are hosts. Recertification credits are available.

The $45 per-person fee includes lunch; preregistration is required. For more information, contact David Handley at 933.2100, david.handley@maine.edu. Additional information, including registration, is online. To request a disability accommodation, contact Pam St. Peter at 933.2100.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Update: October 23, 2015

October 27th, 2015 9:48 AM

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA UPDATE: OCTOBER 23, 2015

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larva in Blackberry

SWD Larvae in Blackberry, photo by David Handley

Spotted wing drosophila populations have not shown any dramatic shifts in the past two weeks. Numbers at all sites remain at levels high enough to justify control, if any fields are still being harvested. Although there have been increases in fly populations in some sites and decreases in others, this variation is relatively small compared to populations we have seen over the past four years; and is probably not significant. What is more notable this year is the lack of a sharp increase in fly populations at the end of the season. Numbers this year are not only lower than in the past, but have remained relatively stable as the season progressed. Over the past few years we have noted a sharp increase in populations a few weeks after we start catching a significant number of flies. Whether the lack of an increase this year is due to a lower overwintering population, fewer flies coming up from the south on storm fronts, more predators and parasites, or some combination of these factors is not yet known. Hopefully, further monitoring and research will provide some answers.

Several growers have asked if they should apply a “clean-up” spray after they have finished harvesting to reduce overwintering populations of spotted wing drosophila. The short answer is “don’t bother”. Such sprays are very unlikely to have an impact on populations next year as most of the flies that come into a field very likely overwinter in another location. What may be more effective is to do a good job of pruning your plants this winter to allow more light and air movement in the planting. This will create a drier environment to discourage the flies, and improve spray penetration to make your insecticide applications more effective.

Town Spotted wing
drosophila weekly
trap catch 10/9/15
Spotted wing
drosophila weekly
trap catch 10/16/15
Spotted wing
drosophila weekly
trap catch 10/23/15
Limington 202 438 179
Limerick 840 363 165
Wells 1392 405 1196
Cape Elizabeth 233 1157 193
Bowdoinham 78 129 135
Dresden* 1743 1715 1499
Freeport 28 2
Buxton 244 262 243
Livermore Falls 57 288
Mechanic Falls 122 100 59
Poland Spring 51 39 29
Monmouth* 99 117 457
Wales 17 247 42

*Not sprayed

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap with One Male SWD Circled

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap, Male SWD Circled, photo by Kaytlin Woodman

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila (SWD) and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

Other IPM Web Pages
Michigan State University
Pennsylvania State University
University of New Hampshire

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Update: October 13, 2015

October 14th, 2015 11:27 AM

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA UPDATE: OCTOBER 13, 2015

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Catch

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Catch, photo by Christina Hillier

Spotted wing drosophila populations are building up in some southern and coastal locations. Numbers at all sites remain at high enough levels to be of concern in any fields still picking fruit. The most significant increases this week occurred in Limerick, Wells, and Dresden. Other sites remained relatively stable or had slight decreases in numbers. There may still be a late season spike in fly counts if we get more moisture and weather coming up from the south, although very cold weather anticipated later this week may put an end to the harvest season for most fields. All fields could still experience significant infestations in ripening fruit, so management of spotted wing drosophila should continue until harvest is finished. A seven-day spray schedule of an appropriate insecticide should provide adequate control of the flies at this time. (See the New England Small Fruit Management Guide for more information and details.) Clean up any waste fruit, and keep the fields on a frequent harvest schedule to further reduce drosophila populations in a field.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/22/15 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/2/15 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/8/15
Limington 65 354 202
Limerick 160 254 840
Wells 63 71 1392
Cape Elizabeth 175 233
Bowdoinham 151 129 78
Dresden* 306 945 1743
Freeport 359 28
Buxton 36 462 244
Livermore Falls 77 16 57
Mechanic Falls 13 140 122
Poland Spring 62 51
Monmouth* 338 403 99
Wales 266 143 17

*Not sprayed

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvain in Raspberry

SWD Larvae in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila (SWD) and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

Other IPM Web Pages
Michigan State University
Pennsylvania State University
University of New Hampshire

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

 

 

Spotted Wing Drosophila Update: October 5, 2015

October 5th, 2015 11:00 AM

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA UPDATE: OCTOBER 5, 2015

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Female Spotted Wing Drosophila

Female Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Christina Hillier

Spotted wing drosophila populations continue to hold at high enough levels to be of concern in any fields still harvesting fruit. While some sites have seen an increase in numbers, we have not yet seen a significant late season spike in fly counts that we have experienced in previous years with this new pest. This could still happen as we get more moisture and weather coming up from the south. Counts in all fields are high enough to cause significant infestations in ripening fruit, so management of spotted wing drosophila should continue in all fields still being harvested. A five to seven day spray schedule of an appropriate insecticide should provide adequate control of the flies, until and unless we see populations rise. (See the New England Small Fruit Management Guide for more information and details.) We have been finding larvae in waste fruit on the ground at some sites. Cleaning up any waste fruit can help reduce populations in a field, and regular harvesting of all ripe fruit can also help slow the build up of this pest.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/11/15 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/22/15 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/2/15
Limington 89 65 354
Limerick 217 160 254
Wells 69 63 71
Cape Elizabeth 1042  175
Bowdoinham 131 151 129
Dresden* 96 306 945
Freeport  359
Buxton 728 36 462
Livermore Falls 51 77 16
Mechanic Falls 55 13 140
Poland Spring 580 62
Monmouth* 1217 338 403
Wales 221 266 143

*Not sprayed

SWD Maggot in Raspberry

SWD Maggot in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                       Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila (SWD) and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

Other IPM Web Pages
Michigan State University
Pennsylvania State University
University of New Hampshire

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.