Apple Insect Pest Key Dates, Background
Key life cycle and management date estimates are based on degree day correlations from various sources. A primary source is the tabulation of insect phenology events and associated degree day accumulations maintained by David P. Kain, NY State Agricultural Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University.
Other sources are:
A.M. Agnello, Entomology Section Editor, 2001, Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree-Fruit Production 2001, Cornell University Cooperative Extension.
A.M. Agnello, Apple Boring Beetles, 1999, Cornell University fact sheet on the Apple-Boring Beetles page (Cornell University eCommons, Cornell’s digital repository website).
J.F. Brunner, S.C. Hoyt, and M.A. Wright, 1987, Codling moth control – A new tool for timing sprays, Extension Bulletin 1072, Washington State University
F.H. Lathrop, 1955, Apple Insects in Maine.
D.G. Pfeiffer, entomology section editor, 1995, Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, NRAES-75.