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Crazy Worm Resources from the University of Vermont

March 10th, 2018

Bolded articles a must read.

Classification and Identification of Pheretimoids

Blakemore, R.J., 2012. Japanese earthworms revisited a decade on: (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea). Zoology in the Middle East, 58(sup4), pp.15-22. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert_Blakemore/publication/263218866_Japanese_earthworms_revisited_a_decade_on_Oligochaeta_Megadrilacea/links/590b35aea6fdcc49617aad77/Japanese-earthworms-revisited-a-decade-on-Oligochaeta-Megadrilacea.pdf

CHANG, C.H., SNYDER, B.A. and SZLAVECZ, K., 2016. Asian pheretimoid earthworms in North America north of Mexico: An illustrated key to the genera Amynthas, Metaphire, Pithemera, and Polypheretima (Clitellata: Megascolecidae). Zootaxa, 4179(3), pp.495-529.

https://www.uvm.edu/~entlab/Forest%20IPM/Worms/Chang_et_al_2016_Zootaxa.pdf

Gates, E.G. and J.W. Reynolds. 2017. Preliminary Key to North American Megadriles (Annelida, Oligochaeta), based on external charcteristics, insofar as possible. Megadrilogica 22.

Distribution of Pheretimoids in the USA

Callaham Jr, M.A., Hendrix, P.F. and Phillips, R.J., 2003. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA: The 7th international symposium on earthworm ecology. Cardiff, Wales, 2002. Pedobiologia, 47(5-6), pp.466-470. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.417.5277&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Chang, C.H., Johnston, M.R., Gorres, J.H., Davalos, A., McHugh, D. and Szlavecz, K., 2017. Co-invasion of three Asian earthworms, Metaphire hilgendorfi, Amynthas agrestis and Amynthas tokioensis in the USA. Biological Invasions, pp.1-6.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-017-1607-x

Hendrix, P.F., Callaham Jr, M.A., Drake, J.M., Huang, C.Y., James, S.W., Snyder, B.A. and Zhang, W., 2008. Pandora’s box contained bait: the global problem of introduced earthworms. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 39, pp.593-613. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/30245178.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A296de2ac0edce3d235de9af4a15770cb

Keller, R.P., Cox, A.N., Van Loon, C., Lodge, D.M., Herborg, L.M. and Rothlisberger, J., 2007. From bait shops to the forest floor: earthworm use and disposal by anglers. The American Midland Naturalist, 158(2), pp.321-328. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4500662.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A7061e6b389bd6ea9d0e4dcf151f48553

Moore, J.D., Gorres, J. and Reynolds, J.W., 2017. Exotic Asian pheretimoid earthworms (Amynthas spp., Metaphire spp.): Potential for colonization of south-eastern Canada and effects on forest ecosystems. Environmental Reviews. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jean_David_Moore/publication/321636493_Exotic_Asian_pheretimoid_earthworms_Amynthas_spp_Metaphire_spp_Potential_for_colonisation_of_south-eastern_Canada_and_effects_on_forest_ecosystems/links/5a2ffdd9458515a13d852766/Exotic-Asian-pheretimoid-earthworms-Amynthas-spp-Metaphire-spp-Potential-for-colonisation-of-south-eastern-Canada-and-effects-on-forest-ecosystems.pdf

Reynolds, J.W., Gorres, J.H. and Knowles, M.E., 2015. A checklist by counties of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae) in the states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Megadrilogica, 17(9), pp.125-140.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Reynolds16/publication/274084321_Reynolds_JW_JH_Gorres_and_ME_Knowles_2015_A_checklist_by_counties_of_earthworms_Oligochaeta_Acanthodrilidae_Lumbricidae_and_Megascolecidae_in_the_states_of_Maine_New_Hampshire_and_Vermont_USA_Megadril/links/5515e6510cf2d70ee272d3c7/Reynolds-JW-JH-Goerres-and-ME-Knowles-2015-A-checklist-by-counties-of-earthworms-Oligochaeta-Acanthodrilidae-Lumbricidae-and-Megascolecidae-in-the-states-of-Maine-New-Hampshire-and-Vermont-USA-Me.pdf

Ecology of Pheretimoids

Belliturk, K., Gorres, J.H., Kunkle, J. and Melnichuk, R.D.S., 2015. Can commercial mulches be reservoirs of invasive earthworms? Promotion of ligninolytic enzyme activity and survival of Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899). Applied Soil Ecology, 87, pp.27-31.

Burtelow, A.E., Bohlen, P.J. and Groffman, P.M., 1998. Influence of exotic earthworm invasion on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and denitrification potential in forest soils of the northeastern United States. Applied Soil Ecology, 9(1-3), pp.197-202. https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/45367909/Influence_of_exotic_earthworm_invasion_o20160505-19994-19dzicy.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1520519915&Signature=ZFzpzKeHUZvFbSZ22yaUMVVgwWY%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DInfluence_of_exotic_earthworm_invasion_o.pdf

Chang, C.H., Szlavecz, K. and Buyer, J.S., 2017. Amynthas agrestis invasion increases microbial biomass in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 114, pp.189-199.

Gates, G.E., 1956. Reproductive organ polymorphism in earthworms of the oriental Megascolecine genus Pheretima Kinberg 1867. Evolution, 10(2), pp.213-227.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/2405895?casa_token=HJCFd4BW3lkAAAAA:XC-aPp6N5zPr0GhhzdLPFMlMf6VzaNsHzac3cmk5v3zvlZdqwweU4Hy1LxsFMYmBtEz01eXhJOU4DUi1wmhBMOUX_kni7he-C3aGADhpXETYsCuUR-I&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Gorres, J.H. and Melnichuk, R.D., 2012. Asian invasive earthworms of the genus Amynthas Kinberg in Vermont. Northeastern Naturalist, 19(2), pp.313-322.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/41684238.pdf?casa_token=Pn3eJJX4uD8AAAAA:KJHXq_NZw702ZPpYeuleZfhGYtWTzM-09zqRYdeqZNGuo2IztDvCLmAPksq-BB_yZDNH4C5tsoKgZ-EZA066m0sIHRdtuM376-MrgZBytzmvOTYKUFA

Gorres, J.H., Connolly, S.T., Chang, C.H., Carpenter, N.R., Keller, E.L., Nouri-Aiin, M. and Schall, J.J., Winter hatching in New England populations of invasive pheretimoid earthworms Amynthas agrestis and Amynthas tokioensis: a limit on population growth, or aid in peripheral expansion?. Biological Invasions, pp.1-5.

Greiner, H.G., Kashian, D.R. and Tiegs, S.D., 2012. Impacts of invasive Asian (Amynthas hilgendorfi) and European (Lumbricus rubellus) earthworms in a North American temperate deciduous forest. Biological Invasions, 14(10), pp.2017-2027. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0208-y

Hiller, B.J. and Barclay, J.S., 2011. Concentrations of heavy metals in American Woodcock harvested in Connecticut. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 60(1), pp.156-164. Not directly related to Amynthas, but compare with Richardson et al., 2015.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00244-010-9525-2

Loss, S.R. and Blair, R.B., 2011. Reduced Density and Nest Survival of Ground-Nesting Songbirds Relative to Earthworm Invasions in Northern Hardwood Forests. Conservation Biology, 25(5), pp.983-992. This is not a pheretimoid paper but these wildlife effects are likely to occur with Amynthas too.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41315175?casa_token=hNF3Bf3BNdsAAAAA:MxRAuSIJHBBs3IMFn3xXYlK_caHevjrf-CdEP1eMnTN_0vO9VqhVn5Rx9zvFvRELru4FAyM8HmYrULX2OzHamVsujbo6crIpK3Ho2o8KDigqH0ZC5CE&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Qiu, J. and Turner, M.G., 2017. Effects of non-native Asian earthworm invasion on temperate forest and prairie soils in the Midwestern US. Biological Invasions, 19(1), pp.73-88.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-016-1264-5

Reynolds, J.W., 1974. Are oligochaetes really hermaphroditic amphimictic organisms. Biologist, 56(2), pp.90-99. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Reynolds16/publication/288940049_Are_oligochaetes_really_hermaphroditic_amphimictic_organisms/links/571f6fcb08aead26e71b632f.pdf

Richardson, D.R., Snyder, B.A. and Hendrix, P.F., 2009. Soil moisture and temperature: tolerances and optima for a non-native earthworm species, Amynthas agrestis (Oligochaeta: Opisthopora: Megascolecidae). Southeastern Naturalist, 8(2), pp.325-334. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/25599323.pdf?casa_token=oP1sK1wYTPQAAAAA:C02U7eWALSG2O_ZHuxMhLPaY2nPIkVdYiFcNHIWKHbVClGOjL309LH53iHepULRt5ugFrf-KO1Q8v7OlUdOiTu9WknKFgNTXMhsoVRQFxxcwPcfU6cY

Richardson, J.B., Gorres, J.H., Jackson, B.P. and Friedland, A.J., 2015. Trace metals and metalloids in forest soils and exotic earthworms in northern New England, USA. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 85, pp.190-198.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4395857/

Snyder, B.A., Boots, B. and Hendrix, P.F., 2009. Competition between invasive earthworms (Amynthas corticis, Megascolecidae) and native North American millipedes (Pseudopolydesmus erasus, Polydesmidae): effects on carbon cycling and soil structure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(7), pp.1442-1449.

Snyder, B.A., Callaham Jr, M.A., Lowe, C.N. and Hendrix, P.F., 2013. Earthworm invasion in North America: food resource competition affects native millipede survival and invasive earthworm reproduction. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, pp.212-216. http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2097/15956/SnyderSoilBioBiochem2013.pdf;sequence=1

Snyder, B.A., Callaham, M.A. and Hendrix, P.F., 2011. Spatial variability of an invasive earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) population and potential impacts on soil characteristics and millipedes in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Biological Invasions, 13(2), pp.349-358. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-010-9826-4

Zhang, W., Hendrix, P.F., Snyder, B.A., Molina, M., Li, J., Rao, X., Siemann, E. and Fu, S., 2010. Dietary flexibility aids Asian earthworm invasion in North American forests. Ecology, 91(7), pp.2070-2079. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25680460?casa_token=3VSkD9lsDQAAAAAA:Jeka1DaMbVkU2GG6HFMq_ptr78Mh4g_tHZoILNSU01dCf_wpGo05jpPM-0xsNwYEjDQNaAkXyOX3YLlhx5aTKZkEr7_VKu72SV6QrYXfflMYSpW_M0c&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Ziemba, J.L., Hickerson, C.A.M. and Anthony, C.D., 2016. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders. PloS one, 11(5), p.e0151591. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151591

Molecular Ecology

Chang, C.H., Rougerie, R. and Chen, J.H., 2009. Identifying earthworms through DNA barcodes: Pitfalls and promise. Pedobiologia, 52(3), pp.171-180.

http://biodiversitygenomics.net/site/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2009%20-%20Chang%20-%20Identifying%20earthworms%20through%20DNA%20barcodes.pdf

Keller, E., J. Schall, J. Görres. 2017. Genetic Structure of Two Invasive Earthworms, Amynthas agrestis and Amynthas tokioensis (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) and a molecular method for species identification. Megadrilogica 22: 140-149 https://erinlkeller.files.wordpress.com/2017/12/keller-et-al-mega-226.pdf

Schult, N., Pittenger, K., Davalos, S. and McHugh, D., 2016. Phylogeographic analysis of invasive Asian earthworms (Amynthas) in the northeast United States. Invertebrate Biology, 135(4), pp.314-327.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ivb.12145/full

Pheretimoid Control

Ikeda, H., Callaham Jr, M.A., O’Brien, J.J., Hornsby, B.S. and Wenk, E.S., 2015. Can the invasive earthworm, Amynthas agrestis, be controlled with prescribed fire?. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 82, pp.21-27. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ef8c/ca7ad245e22373e33dbef0c2cc84748aad43.pdf

Compiled by Josef Gorres, jgorres@uvm.edu, Plant and Soil Science Department, Jeffords Hall, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405.

Maryam Nouri-Aiin, Maryam.Nouri-Aiin@uvm.edu, Plant and Soil Science Department, Jeffords Hall, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405.

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