Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 2 – May 25, 2018

May 25th, 2018 2:15 PM

StrawberriesStrawberry IPM Newsletter No. 2 – May 25, 2018
Click on photos to enlarge.

FULL BLOOM IN SOUTHERN FIELDS

Time to Protect Blossoms from Gray Mold Infection

Berry Growers Twilight Meeting
Wednesday, June 6, 2018 at 5:00 p.m.
Pineland Farm in New Gloucester, Maine

Situation:
Very variable weather predominates, with mixed temperatures and cloudy days, but little rainfall in most areas. Many fields experienced one or two frost events last weekend, but growers were ready and had irrigation or row covers for protection. Early fields in southern Maine are well into bloom, with flower buds just opening in later varieties. Many growers have applied their first fungicide application for gray mold. Once spray materials have dried on the plants, they are generally considered “rainfast”, unless there is more than one inch of rainfall. Once more than one inch of rain has fallen, or there has been significant shoot or flower growth that is unprotected since the last application, another fungicide application should be applied to assure adequate protection. Remember to alternate fungicide and insecticide chemical families to prevent the development of pest resistance.

Twilight Meeting Wednesday June 6th will be held at Pineland Farm, 752 Mayall Road, New Gloucester, Maine 04260. Justin Gray, Manager of Pineland Farms Produce Division will discuss berry and vegetable production on this intervale site with sandy soils and extensive irrigation engineering. The farm markets both locally thorough U-pick and a farm market, and supplies large market chains through much of the season, specializing in berries, sweet corn and pumpkins. We will also get an update on the berry pest situation around the state, and have an opportunity to look over the equipment they use and have adapted for their operation. The meeting will run from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. We anticipate that two pesticide applicator recertification credits will be awarded for the meeting. Hold the date!

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” activity has been low in most fields that we’ve scouted this week. Only one field in Dresden was over the threshold of more than 1.2 clipped buds per two feet of row. We are seeing the small holes in the petals of opening flowers that indicate clipper feeding activity in some fields, especially along the border rows, but they are just starting to lay eggs and clip buds. Expect clipper damage to increase as temperatures warm and late blooming varieties come into bloom. Insecticide options for clipper include Lorsban®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Danitol®, Sevin® and PyGanic®. Raspberry and blackberry growers beware; clippers will also attack the buds of these plants, although they do not appear to cause as much significant injury.

Clipper Beetle on Strawberry Blossom

Clipper Beetle on Strawberry Blossom, photo by David Handley

Tarnished Plant Bug

Tarnished Plant Bug, photo by Charles Armstrong

Tarnished plant bug activity has been low so far, this season. We have adult bugs in most fields, but so far only a few, early instar nymphs. The nymphs can be hard to find, especially if the plants are wet. Young nymphs are very small (2 mm), active, yellow-green insects. It is important to scout for them regularly, as they can appear very quickly. The threshold for nymphs is 4 or more flower clusters infested per 30 sampled. Start scouting any field with open flowers now. Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include malathion, Assail®, Brigade®, Bifenture®, Dibrom®, Danitol®, and PyGanic®.

Two-spotted spider mites have been found in most of the fields we scouted this week, but mostly in fairly low numbers. Only one field exceeded the recommended spray threshold. Mites typically proliferate under hot, dry conditions like we had last fall, so fields may have harbored a high mite population. Once temperatures become warmer we may see more problems with mites. It is important to scout for mites regularly. If 25% of leaves sampled (e.g. 15 out of 60) have any mites, a spray should be applied. Chemical control options for two-spotted spider mites include Acramite®, Savey®, Zeal®, Portal®, Vendex®, Oberon®, Brigade®, and Danitol®. Be sure to use enough liquid and pressure in the spray to get good coverage on the undersides of the leaves.

Cyclamen mites:  We have seen some light symptoms of cyclamen mite injury this week, but haven’t found any live mites yet. Heavily infested plants show weak growth and shrunken, crinkled leaves. These mites are very small and reside in the crown of the strawberry plant, feeding on the developing leaves and flower buds. They are very hard to see, even with magnification. Portal® can be effective, but must be applied in lots of water to be sure that the material is carried down into the crowns where these mites reside.

Strawberry Rootworm Beetle

Strawberry Rootworm Beetle, photo by James Dill

Strawberry rootworm (not root weevil) adults and feeding injury have been found on strawberry leaves in some fields this spring. The adult stage of this insect is a small (1/8”) dark brown beetle. The beetles feed on strawberry leaves during the spring and late summer, causing numerous small holes in the leaves. The adults in fields now will soon lay eggs. The larvae are small grubs that feed on the roots of strawberry plants, causing them to be stunted and weak. If these beetles and/or feeding injury is prevalent in a field, a treatment is recommended.  Sevin 50WP® is registered for control of this pest. Sprays can be timed to also control strawberry bud weevil. Strawberry rootworm should not be confused with root weevil, a larger insect that causes much more serious damage when present in a field.

Diseases:  As the fields come into bloom it is important to protect the flowers against infection by spores of the gray mold fungus, Botrytis cinerea. Most fruit infections take place through the flowers, so control efforts should be focused on the bloom period. Two to three sprays of fungicide are typically required to provide good protection. The first spray is usually applied at 5-10% bloom, followed by a second application at petal fall. Additional applications may be applied if there is significant rainfall between or following these two sprays.

Leather rot (Phytopthora cactorum) may become a problem in fields where standing water is common during bloom and fruit development, especially if the fields were not mulched last fall. Incidence of leather rot can be reduced by applying straw mulch between the rows to prevent berries from touching the soil and reducing soil splashing onto the berries. Foliar sprays of Aliette®, Prophyt® or Phostrol® may be applied during bloom and fruit development to prevent leather rot when there has been excess moisture in a field, especially those with a history of this problem.

Powdery mildew:  We haven’t yet seen early symptoms of this fungus disease in fields. However, it could become prevalent when warmer weather arrives. It may first appear as purple or red blotches on the leaf and flower stems. Later, upward curling leaves and white, powdery growth on the undersides of the leaves becomes evident. Check your fields for pinkish purple leaf and flower stem lesions as new leaves emerge. Pristine®, Cabrio®, Topsin-M®, captan, Procure®, and Torino® are registered to control powdery mildew.

Leaf Spot

Leaf Spot, photo by David Handley

Leaf spot is a fungal disease characterized by small purple spots with white centers on the leaves. The symptoms are often first visible on the older, lower leaves but often spread throughout the foliage. Spots or lesions may also appear on the leaf and flower stems. The fungus overwinters on older leaves and spreads with rain splashing in the spring. Severe infections can weaken plants, reducing fruit size, yield, and winter survival. We haven’t seen much leaf spot in fields this spring. Varieties vary quite a bit in susceptibility to this disease. If you see leaf spot in your field, you should consider using a fungicide that will provide control as part of your spray program for gray mold. Products such as Captan®, Luna Sensation®, Mervion® and Pristine® have activity on both diseases.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                 Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                        491 College Ave
Monmouth, ME  04259   Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                     1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used, it is for the reader’s information.  No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients.  Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/ affirmative action institution.

Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 1 – May 18, 2018

May 18th, 2018 2:59 PM

Strawberries

University of Maine Strawberry IPM Newsletter No. 1   May 18, 2018
Click on photos to enlarge.

2018 STRAWBERRY PEST MANAGEMENT SEASON BEGINS

Twilight Meeting Wednesday, June 6, Pineland Farms, New Gloucester

Situation:
Just like last year, we may see some impact of the dry growing conditions of last summer on the 2018 harvest. Beds with inadequate or no irrigation did not develop optimal plant populations due to poor runner establishment. As a result, many beds look thinner than we would like and may have a somewhat smaller crop. However, winter survival of plants looks very good, except where deer or turkeys pulled off mulch and damaged plants. Winter injury can be diagnosed by cutting into the crowns of the strawberry plants. The internal tissue will show dark brown discoloration. To reduce the impact of winter injury, make sure the plants get plenty of water, and apply nutrients to encourage root growth and flower development, including nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Heavy nitrogen fertilizer applications in the spring are not recommended, but up to 20 pounds of actual N (e.g. 125 lb. calcium nitrate) may improve early spring growth.

2017-2018 New England Small Fruit Management Guides are available from UMaine Cooperative Extension if you didn’t get your copy last year. The guide contains the latest information on management options for small fruit pests as well as cultural information. You can also access the guide on the UMass Extension website.

We began scouting strawberry fields for major insect pests this week, and will be working with volunteer farms in Wells, Limington, Cape Elizabeth, Minot, New Gloucester, Dresden, Monmouth, Wayne, and Farmington. The results of our scouting will be reported through this newsletter and blog on a weekly basis until harvest time. You can also get quick access to this information on the UMaine Pest Management web page at http://umaine.edu/ipm/. If you would prefer to receive this newsletter via e-mail, please give us a call at 933.2100 or send an e-mail message to: pamela.stpeter@maine.edu.

The best way to manage strawberry pests is to scout your own fields regularly and often. You should begin to scout as soon as flower buds emerge from the crowns and continue to monitor the plantings one or two times per week up until harvest. You should be able to identify the major pests and their damage, and be able to determine if control measures are necessary. To properly scout your fields, you may want a copy of the Strawberry Production Guide for the Northeast, Midwest and Eastern Canada. This contains detailed information on strawberry pest identification and monitoring, and also provides information on all other aspects of strawberry production. It may be purchased for $45.00 per copy from the University of Maine Cooperative Extension Publications Catalog online.

Strawberry bud weevil or “clipper” will soon become active as flower buds begin to emerge. Although we did not find any clipped buds this week, we did see some chewed holes in the petals of primary flowers indicating that clippers are starting to feed. The clipper is a small weevil, which girdles strawberry flower buds, causing them to dry up and fall off the flower stalk. Scout for damage by counting the number of clipped buds in two feet of row length at five different locations in a field. If the average number of clipped buds per two-foot sample exceeds 1.2, or if live clippers are found, control measures are recommended. Damage is usually first noticed at the edges of the field. Border sprays may be effective in keeping this insect from becoming a problem in larger fields. Fields with a history of clipper problems will typically exceed threshold nearly every year. Insecticide options for clipper include Lorsban®, Brigade®, Sevin® and PyGanic®.

Clipper on Strawberry

Clipper on Strawberry, photo by David Handley

Tarnished Plant Bug on Strawberry

Tarnished Plant Bug on Strawberry Flower, photo by David Handley

Tarnished plant bug adults are active and were found in several strawberry fields this week. These insects will soon be laying eggs in strawberry leaf and flower stems. Once the eggs start to hatch, the nymphs will begin feeding in the flowers. The nymphs are small, active, yellow-green insects. They can appear very quickly in warm weather, so it is important to scout for them regularly. Tarnished plant bugs feed on open strawberry flowers and young fruit, causing the berries to have seedy ends. To scout for the nymphs, tap or shake 30 flower clusters (six clusters in five different locations) over a plate. If four or more of the clusters out of the 30 sampled have any nymphs, control measures should be taken. Be on the alert and scout your fields as soon as open flowers appear! Insecticide options for tarnished plant bug include Assail®, Brigade®, Danitol®, Dibrom®, and PyGanic®.

Cyclamen mites:  Plants showing weak growth and yellow, pinkish or blackened, crinkled leaves may be infested with cyclamen mite. These mites are very small, smaller than spider mites, and reside in the crown of the strawberry plant feeding on the developing leaves and flower buds. They are very hard to see, even with magnification. Infested plants have shrunken distorted leaves and flower stalks, and produce few, if any, marketable fruit. The miticide Portal® can be effective, but must be applied in lots of water and a spreader adjuvant to be sure that the material is carried down into the crowns where these mites reside.

Cyclamen Mite Damage on Strawberry Plant

Cyclamen Mite Damage on Strawberry Plant, photo by David Handley

Two-spotted Spider Mites

Two-spotted Spider Mites, photo by David Handley

Two-spotted spider mites can be a problem in the spring, especially for plants under row covers. We have found mites in nearly every field scouted this week, but in relatively low numbers, not yet requiring control measures. However, mites reproduce rapidly when warm weather arrives, so it is important to scout for them regularly. Spider mites mostly feed on the undersides of strawberry leaves, rasping the plant tissue and sucking the sap. Infested leaves will develop yellow flecking and a bronzed appearance. The plants become weakened and stunted. Fields that have had excessive nitrogen fertilizer and/or row covers tend to be most susceptible to mite injury. To scout for mites, collect 60 leaves from various locations in the field and examine the undersides for the presence of mites. Mites are very small – you may need a hand lens to see them. Chemical control options for two-spotted spider mites include Acramite®, Portal®, Nealta® Savey®, Zeal®, Vendex®, Oberon®, Brigade®, Danitol® and JMS Stylet Oil® (oils will cause plant injury if used in combination with captan or within 14 days of an application of sulfur).

Strawberry Root Weevil Grub

Strawberry Root Weevil Grub, photo by David Handley

Root weevil management
Fields that were infested with root weevils last summer should be inspected for grubs this spring. Infested plants appear weak and stunted, usually in somewhat circular patches in a field. Digging under the plants will reveal small (1/4”-1/2”) crescent-shaped legless grubs. Typically, the grubs begin to pupate when the plants are in bloom. A soil drench of Platinum® (thiamethoxam) insecticide during the spring and/or fall when the grubs are active in the soil can provide control. However, Platinum® has a 50 day pre-harvest interval, so it is too late for applications in most fruiting fields this year. Platinum® may also be used as a pre-plant or planting treatment for root weevils. It is not too late to put on an application of nematodes to control the grubs (optimal timing is about mid-May). Two species of nematodes appear to offer the best control of root weevil grubs. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) appears to be the best candidate for control of root weevils when the soil temperature is above 60 degrees, and is available from Green Methods, the Integrated Biocontrol Network, and Koppert Biological Systems.

Nematodes are living organisms and they can be killed if they are misapplied. Order nematodes ahead of time and be ready to apply them through a sprayer or irrigation soon after they arrive. Refrigerate them if you cannot apply right away. Do not apply nematodes using a sprayer with a piston pump. Use clean equipment, removing all screens finer than 50-mesh. Apply nematodes in early morning or evening in a high volume of water to already moist soil, pre-irrigating if needed. Apply another ¼ inch of irrigation after application to wash them onto and into the soil. Researchers and suppliers recommended 250 (if banded in the row) to 500 million per acre, at a cost of $100-$200 per acre depending on volume and source. Nematodes tend to work best in heavily infested fields. Strawberry plants can recover their vigor remarkably well if crown feeding has not occurred and diseases haven’t taken over the roots.

Once the adults become active in July, bifenthrin (Brigade®) will provide some control if used at the highest labeled rates. The best timing for this spray is at night during the peak feeding activity of adults, before they start laying eggs, or about the time harvest ends.

White Grub Under Strawberry

White Grub Under Strawberry Plant, photo by David Handley

White grubs:  Weak growth noted in fields this spring may also be the result of white grubs feeding on the roots of newer plantings. These grubs are the larvae of beetles, including European chafer and Asiatic garden beetle. They differ from the larvae of black vine weevil and strawberry root weevil in that they have legs and a swollen anterior (rear end), and they tend to be larger. Their feeding weakens the plants by reducing the number of roots. The grubs can be found by pulling up weak plants and sifting through the soil that surrounded the roots. Controlling white grubs once they have become established in a field can be difficult. These tend to be more of a problem in new fields that have been planted following a grass rotation crop, because the adults prefer to lay their eggs in sod. Admire Pro® and Platinum® insecticides are labeled for control of white grubs and should be applied within two hours of irrigation or rainfall to be sure the chemical gets into the root zone. Admire Pro® requires a 14 day to harvest interval, while Platinum® requires a 50 day pre-harvest interval.

Gray Mold on Strawberries

Gray Mold on Strawberries, photo by James Dill

Diseases:  Bloom is a critical time to protect strawberry fruit against gray mold caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, especially when conditions have been damp. Two to three sprays of fungicide during bloom are typically required to provide good protection against this disease. If you tank mix insecticides and fungicides, avoid spraying when bees are active. Botrytis cinerea overwinters on old leaves and plant debris. Fruit infections take place almost exclusively through the flowers, so gray mold control efforts must be focused on the bloom period. If the bloom period is dry and/or good fungicide coverage is maintained, incidence of gray mold at harvest should be low.

There are several excellent fungicide choices for control of gray mold in strawberries. Elevate® (fenhexamid) has good to excellent activity against Botrytis. Captevate® is a pre-mix of captan and fenhexamid and has a broader spectrum of activity than Elevate® alone. Switch® (cyprodinil and fludioxonil), Scala® (pyramethanil) and Pristine® (pyraclostrobin and boscalid) are also excellent products for gray mold control. Topsin M® + captan is also a good fungicide combination, but remember that captan is strictly a protectant and can be washed off by rain or irrigation water. Thiram is similarly effective but also susceptible to wash-off.

Red Stele Symptoms on Strawberry Plant

Red Stele Symptoms on Strawberry Plant, photo by David Handley

The fungicides Cabrio® (pyraclostrobin) and Abound® (azoxystrobin) are NOT suitable for gray mold control, but are effective against anthracnose and other fruit rot and leaf spot diseases. All fungicides mentioned above have a 0-day pre-harvest interval, except Topsin M® (1 day) and thiram (3 days). Remember to alternate fungicides with different modes of action for resistance management purposes.

Red stele root rot
Although early spring conditions were not especially conducive to red stele development, you should still be alert for this root rot if any fields appear to be weak, stunted or dying. To diagnose red stele, pull up a few plants that look weak and scrape the roots of these plants to see if the center of the root, known as the stele, is rusty red in color, instead of the normal white. The red color would indicate an infection. Red stele is caused by Phytophthora fragariae, a soil pathogen that infects roots when soils are wet with temperatures around 50°F. The pathogen grows into the roots causing the plants to become weak, stunted and to eventually die. Symptoms are most evident in the spring, and can be mistaken for winter injury. Ridomil Gold®, Alliette® or Phostrol® are fungicides that can be applied in the late fall or early spring for control of red stele. In newly planted beds, RootShield® may be applied as a pre-plant root dip to help prevent infections. Many varieties have some level of resistance to the disease, but the most effective management strategy is to plant only into well-drained soils, and/or plant onto raised beds.

Powdery mildew:  This fungus disease may first show up as purple or red blotches on the leaf petioles and flower stems in strawberry fields. Most of us are more familiar with the later symptoms of upward curling of the leaves and white, powdery growth on the undersides of the leaves. We haven’t found symptoms yet, but they can appear rapidly once daily temperatures get warmer. Check your fields for pinkish purple leaf and flower stem lesions as new leaves emerge. Pristine®, Cabrio®, Topsin-M®, captan, Procure®, Torino® and JMS Stylet Oil® are presently registered to control powdery mildew.

Powdery Mildew

Powdery Mildew, photo by David Handley

Angular Leaf Spot

Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot, Photo by David Handley

Angular leaf spot is a bacterial disease that is characterized by translucent leaf spots that may turn yellow and eventually black. The symptoms tend to start on the lower leaves but may move upwards as bacterial spores are splashed up by rain or irrigation water. Infection of the calyxes may result in a blackening of the berry stems and caps, reducing their marketability. Bacterial angular leaf spot is favored by extended cool, wet weather and nights with temperatures close to freezing. Frequent irrigation for frost protection can greatly encourage the development and spread of the disease, as will extended cool, damp weather. Susceptibility to this disease appears to vary significantly between varieties. The copper-containing material Kocide®, can reduce the spread of this disease. Start spray applications before bloom to prevent multiplication of the bacteria on the leaves before they jump to the berry caps. Application of copper sprays after bloom can result in fruit injury and is not recommended. Hydrogen dioxide (OxiDate®) may also have some activity against angular leaf spot when used on strawberries as part of a gray mold management program.

Other Berries:

Raspberries are showing little winter injury so far, but often winter injury becomes apparent once the floricanes start to flower. Tip dieback often occurs due to winter damage to the vascular tissue within the canes. Flower buds are starting to emerge on early varieties in southern Maine. These are susceptible to damage from strawberry bud weevil or clipper, as discussed above. Look for clipped buds and weevils regularly once the buds are visible.

Highbush blueberries are showing a very impressive bloom in most fields this spring, offering the potential of a very good crop, if conditions for development are right. If fruit set is heavy, be sure to supply adequate irrigation and nutrients during the growing season to support fruit development, reduce stress on the plants and to assure good bud development for next year. Mummy berry spores will soon be active. Expect infection periods to occur over the next few weeks, anytime there is a significant moisture event (rain, mist, fog). Protectant fungicides for mummy berry include Indar®, Orbit®, and Quilt Excel®.

Twilight Meeting Wednesday June 6th, Pineland Farms, 752 Mayall Road, New Gloucester. Justin Gray, Manager of Pineland Farms Produce Division will discuss berry and vegetable production on this intervale site with sandy soils and extensive irrigation engineering.  The farm markets both locally through U-pick and a farm market, and supplies large market chains through much of the season, specializing in berries, sweet corn and pumpkins. We will also get an update on the berry pest situation around the state, and have an opportunity to look over the equipment they use and have adapted for their operation. The meeting will run from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. More details to follow. Hope to see you in New Gloucester!

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Ave
Monmouth, ME  04259        Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used, it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these producers assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

 

 

 

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: October 20, 2017

October 23rd, 2017 10:17 AM
Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Catch

Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap Catch, photo by Christina Hillier

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ALERT:  OCTOBER 20, 2017

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Trap counts of spotted wing drosophila rose dramatically in some locations over the past week. We are now finding fly numbers in the thousands at more than half of our trapping sites. (See table below.) All sites remain well over the threshold for larvae infestation if susceptible crops are not protected with regular sprays or netting. A spray interval of every 5 to 7 days should be adequate to prevent any marketable fruit remaining in the field from becoming infested. Continue harvest regularly and often, and keep overripe and rotten fruit out of the field as much as possible. Long range weather forecasts suggest continued warmer than normal temperatures ahead, which will both extend the late berry season and likely keep spotted wing drosophila pressure high.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/6/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/13/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/20/17
Wells 567 88 8664
Limington 87 152 3488
Limerick 1808 187 637
Cape Elizabeth 124 750 2424
New Gloucester 209 408 1272
Bowdoinham 563 244 1584
Dresden 4376 2816 3368
Freeport 133 655 407
Poland Spring 440 294 3504
Mechanic Falls 55 31 546
Monmouth 4696 1188 3368
Wales 343 372 325
Farmington 7568 5680 5112

 

 

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: October 13, 2017

October 13th, 2017 2:03 PM
Spotted Wing Drosophila Damage in Elderberry Plant

Spotted Wing Drosophila Damage in Elderberry Plant, photo by David Handley

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ALERT:  10/13/2017

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Spotted wing drosophila populations continue to be high but variable this week. While some locations saw decreases in the weekly trap catch, others had the highest numbers of the season. (See table below.) This variability can be due to a number of factors, including changing availability of food, ambient moisture, temperature, and insecticide applications. Despite the variation however, all sites were over the threshold for infestation if fruit were left untreated; and growers who still have ripening fruit should continue to protect their crop on a spray interval of 5 to 7 days to prevent fruit from becoming infested. Also, continue harvest regularly and often, and keep overripe and rotten fruit out of the field as much as possible. Long range weather forecasts suggest a warmer than normal stretch of days ahead. While this is great for extending the late berry season, it also means that spotted wing drosophila will likely continue to be a threat.

Male and Female Spotted Wing Drosophila Flies

Male (left) and Female (right) Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/29/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/6/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/13/17
Wells 527 567 88
Limington 373 80 152
Limerick 174 799 187
Cape Elizabeth 879 204 750
New Gloucester 341 259 408
Bowdoinham 264 746 244
Dresden 554 2064 2816
Freeport 359 111 655
Poland Spring 1866 2608 294
Mechanic Falls 113 51 31
Monmouth 63 1624 1188
Wales 104 450 372
Farmington 286 440 5680

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: October 10, 2017

October 10th, 2017 3:02 PM
Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Elderberries

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Elderberries, photo by David Handley

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ALERT:  OCTOBER 10, 2017

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Spotted wing drosophila numbers increased significantly at some of the trapping sites this week, although there doesn’t seem to be a pattern to those increases geographically. (See table below.) Fly numbers at other locations remained relatively stable or had slight decreases. However, all sites are still well over the threshold for infestation if fruit are left untreated. We have had several calls over the past two weeks regarding late ripening fruit (strawberries and elderberries) being infested with larvae. Therefore, growers who still have ripening fruit should continue to protect their crop on a spray interval of 5 to 7 days to prevent fruit from becoming infested It is also important to keep wounded and rotten fruit out of the field as much as possible. Allowing it to stay on the plant or on the ground will attract more flies and provide food and shelter for more eggs and larvae. With the long-term forecasts predicting continued warmer than normal temperatures, it is likely that spotted wing drosophila will continue to threaten late ripening berries.

Insects in Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap

Insects in Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap, Male SWD Circled, photo by Kaytlin Woodman

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/22/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/29/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 10/6/17
Wells 45 527 567
Limington 373 80 87
Limerick 174 799 1808
Cape Elizabeth 879 204 124
New Gloucester 341 259 209
Bowdoinham 264 746 563
Dresden 554 2064 4376
Freeport 359 111 133
Poland Spring 1866 2608 440
Mechanic Falls 113 51 55
Monmouth 63 1624 4696
Wales 104 450 343
Farmington 286 440 7568

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: September 22, 2017

October 6th, 2017 10:47 AM
Spotted Wing Drosophila

Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ALERT: SEPTEMBER 22, 2017

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

There was a downturn in spotted wing drosophila numbers at most of our trapping locations this week, although it is important to note that all locations still had populations high enough to cause significant damage to any ripening fruit remaining in fields. (See table below.) Fall raspberries and day-neutral strawberries are especially susceptible at this time. Growers with any ripening fruit should continue protecting their crop against egg-laying drosophila. A minimum spray interval of 5 to 7 days is recommended to keep fruit from becoming infested.

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

Spotted Wing Drosophila Maggot in Raspberry

SWD Maggot in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

Quick Farm Labor Survey: This may be the easiest survey you have ever been asked to complete! It’s 10 questions that can be answered with a simple click of a button. We have heard your requests to provide educational resources to help you recruit, retain, and manage labor on your farms and at your agricultural businesses. We are looking to get information to help us focus on what resources would be especially helpful. Just 3 minutes of your time would make a big difference to us.

Please respond ASAP and before Sunday, October 8, 2017. To complete this survey please click here. Thanks again, for your time!

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/8/17 Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/15/17 Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/22/17
Wells 273 330 45
Limington 568 734 373
Limerick 326 1771 174
Cape Elizabeth 2968 1308 879
New Gloucester 272 383 341
Bowdoinham 449 792 264
Dresden 666 1584 554
Freeport 164 132 359
Poland Spring 807 1145 1866
Mechanic Falls 77 48 113
Monmouth 434 470 63
Wales 122 86 104
Farmington 1728 1848 286

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: September 29, 2017

October 2nd, 2017 9:18 AM
Male Spotted Wing Drosophila

Male Spotted Wing Drosophila, photo by Griffin Dill. Actual size: 2-3 mm.

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA ALERT: SEPTEMBER 29, 2017

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Spotted wing drosophila numbers were variable from site to site this week, with some locations seeing little change or a slight decrease from last week, while others showed a significant increase. This may be due to the availability of fruit at each site, as the season starts to wind down, spraying at a site, or trap exposure during the recent hot, sunny days. It is important to note, however, that all locations still have drosophila numbers high enough to cause significant damage to any ripening fruit remaining in the fields. (See table below.) Fall raspberries and day-neutral strawberries are very susceptible at this time. We have also had reports of peaches being infested over the past week. Typically, thicker-skinned fruit like peaches, plums and grapes are not very susceptible to spotted wing drosophila unless the skin is cracked or wounded, which provides the flies with easy access to the flesh for egg laying. It is important to keep wounded and rotten fruit out of the field as much as possible. Allowing it to stay on the plant or on the ground will attract more flies and provide food and shelter for more eggs and larvae.

SWD Maggot in Raspberry

SWD Maggot in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

Growers with any ripening fruit should continue protecting their crop against egg-laying drosophila. A minimum spray interval of 5 to 7 days is recommended to keep fruit from becoming infested.

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/15/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/22/17 Spotted Wing Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/29/17
Wells 330 45 527
Limington 734 373 80
Limerick 1771 174 799
Cape Elizabeth 1308 879 204
New Gloucester 383 341 259
Bowdoinham 792 264 746
Dresden 1584 554 2064
Freeport 132 359 111
Poland Spring 1145 1866 2608
Mechanic Falls 48 113 51
Monmouth 470 63 1624
Wales 86 104 450
Farmington 1848 286 440

Spotted Wing Drosophila Alert: September 15, 2017

September 15th, 2017 3:15 PM

SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA UPDATE: SEPTEMBER 15, 2017

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry

Spotted Wing Drosophila Larvae in Raspberry, photo by David Handley

Click on photos to enlarge.

David Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist; James Dill, Pest Management Specialist; Frank Drummond, Professor of Insect Ecology/Entomology

Trap captures for spotted wing drosophila increased in most locations this week, likely stimulated by some warmer weather from tropical fronts moving through Maine. Fly populations remain well over the tolerance level to prevent fruit infestation. (See table below.) Growers with any susceptible ripening fruit will need to continue protecting their crop against larval infestation. Regular, consistent spray coverage is needed to prevent fruit infestation. At this time, we continue to recommend a minimum spray interval of 5 to 7 days.

There is a possibility that any more tropical storm fronts moving into the region could further increase drosophila numbers. Harvest all ripe fruit regularly and remove any rotten or cull fruit from the field.

Insects in Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap

Insects in Spotted Wing Drosophila Trap, Male SWD Circled, photo by Kaytlin Woodman

For more information on identifying spotted wing drosophila and updates on populations around the state, visit our SWD blog.

Other IPM Web Pages
Michigan State University
Penn State University
University of New Hampshire

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME 04259          Orono, ME 04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Town Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 8/31/17 Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/8/17 Spotted Wing  Drosophila weekly trap catch 9/15/17
Wells 1256 273 330
Limington 428 568 734
Limerick 237 326 1771
Cape Elizabeth 2968 1308
New Gloucester 272 383
Bowdoinham 1448 449 792
Dresden 103 666 1584
Freeport 56 164
Poland Spring 597 807 1145
Mechanic Falls 65 77 48
Monmouth 681 434 470
Wales 642 122 86
Farmington 1552 1728 1848

Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 13 – September 15, 2017

September 15th, 2017 1:20 PM

Sweet CornSweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 13 – September 15, 2017
Click on photos to enlarge.

Last Issue for 2017!

INCREASING PEST PRESSURE TO END SEASON

Fresh Silking Corn Remaining Likely to Need Protection

This will be the final issue of the Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter for the 2017 season. I would like to thank all of the growers who participated in the program this year, and our team of IPM scouts, including Kara Rowley, Tammy Cushman, Lindsey Ridlon and Sean McAuley. Have questions, comments or suggestions about the program? Please call or e-mail us.

SITUATION
It appears the tropical fronts and warmer weather pushing through Maine have only brought about a moderate increase in moth activity. There may be more activity associated with tropical storms in the coming weeks, however, so the threat to any fresh silking corn that still remains may increase.

European corn borer:  No moth captures for a second week, so no real threat from European corn borer to end the season. There was no fresh larval feeding injury on younger corn and no sprays for this insect were recommended.

Corn Earworm Moth

Corn Earworm Moth, photo by David Handley

Fall Armyworm Moths

Fall Armyworm Moths (female right, male left), photo by James Dill

Corn earworm:  Moth counts rose moderately in most locations this week, keeping most fields with any fresh silk remaining on a spray schedule. A 6-day spray interval was recommended for silking corn in Oxford and one Wells site this week. A 5-day spray schedule was recommended in Auburn, one Dayton site and Sabattus. A 4-day spray interval was recommended in Cape Elizabeth, one Dayton location, North Berwick, and one Wells site.

Fall armyworm:  Moth activity was spotty around the state this week, with some sites seeing a slight increase in activity and others not. No sprays were recommended exclusively for fall armyworm on silking corn, because all sites over the 3-moth threshold were on a spray interval for corn earworm, including Cape Elizabeth, Dayton, Oxford and Sabattus. No sites were over the 15% injury threshold for larval feeding damage.

Just a reminder that fall is a great time for soil testing
Late summer and early fall are good times to seed cover crops to prevent soil erosion and to retain soil nutrients. It is also a great time to check on the health of your soil. Getting your soil test results before the ground freezes allows time to correct soil pH with additions of lime, and incorporate any needed supplements into the soil, such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium or other nutrients to correct deficiencies, and/or manure to increase organic matter. Fall applications of lime and some nutrients (not nitrogen, as it is prone to leaching) are often better, because the fields are drier than in the spring. It’s easier to move equipment around, and the nutrients will have time to be worked into the soil before the plants need them. You can pick up soil test boxes and forms at any county office of the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, or call us here at Highmoor Farm if you’d like us to send you some. For details on soil testing at the University of Maine Analytical Laboratory and Soil Testing Service, you can visit their website at: https://umaine.edu/soiltestinglab/.

The New England Vegetable and Fruit Conference will be held in Manchester, New Hampshire on December 12, 13 and 14, 2017. Program and registration information will be coming soon. Visit the website, http://www.newenglandvfc.org/.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Sweet Corn IPM Weekly Scouting Summary

Location CEW
Moths
ECB
Moths
FAW
Moths
%Feeding
Damage
Recommendations / Comments
Auburn 5 0 0 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Bowdoinham 1 0 0 0% No spray recommended
Cape Elizabeth I 26 0 17 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Cape Elizabeth II 16 0 13 0% 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Dayton I 63 0 13 0% 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Dayton II 6 0 4 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Monmouth 1 0 1 0% No spray recommended
North Berwick 11 0 2 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Oxford 3 0 9 6-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Sabattus 5 0 4 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Wales 1 0 1 0% No spray recommended
Wayne 0 0 0 No spray recommended
Wells I 2 0 2 6-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Wells II 10 0 0 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn

CEW: Corn earworm (Only fresh silking corn should be sprayed for this insect.)
ECB: European corn borer
FAW: Fall armyworm

Corn Earworm Spray Thresholds for Pheromone Traps

Moths caught per week Moths caught per night Spray interval
0.0 to 1.4 0.0 to 0.2 No spray
1.5 to 3.5 0.3 to 0.5 Spray every 6 days
3.6 to 7.0 0.6 to 1.0 Spray every 5 days
7.1 to 91 1.1 to 13.0 Spray every 4 days
More than 91 More than 13 Spray every 3 days

Thresholds apply only to corn with exposed fresh silk. Lengthen spray intervals by one day if maximum daily temperature is less than 80°F.

European Corn Borer Thresholds
Whorl stage: 30% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Pre-tassel-silk: 15% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Silk: 5 or more moths caught in pheromone traps in one week.

IPM Web Pages :
UMaine Cooperative Extension IPM
Penn State Sweet Corn IPM
UMass Extension IPM Programs

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.

Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 12 – September 11, 2017

September 11th, 2017 3:06 PM

Sweet CornSweet Corn IPM Newsletter No. 12 – September 11, 2017
Click on photos to enlarge.

CORN PEST THREAT MODERATE BUT VARIABLE

Corn Earworm and Fall Armyworm Active in Silking Corn at Most Sites

SITUATION
Cool nights and some rainy days appear to be holding corn pests at moderate levels for this time of year, as the sweet corn season winds down. However, we may still have the remnants of tropical storms to deal with over the next couple of weeks which could cause an increase in corn earworm and/or fall armyworm populations. Next week will be the last scheduled issue of the Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter for the 2017 season.

European corn borer:  No moth captures this week, suggesting the threat of corn borer may be over for this season. Larval feeding injury on younger corn was also very low, and did not exceed threshold at any location.

Corn earworm:  Overall, moth counts remain fairly low this week, but high enough to keep some sites on a tight spray schedule for any fresh silking corn remaining. A 5-day spray schedule was recommended in Auburn, New Gloucester, North Berwick, and Wells.  A 4-day spray interval was recommended in Biddeford, Cape Elizabeth, one Dayton location, Lewiston, Monmouth and Sabattus.

Corn Earworm Feeding on Corn

Corn Earworm Feeding on Corn, photo by David Handley

Fall Army Worm on Pre-tassel Corn Plant

Fall Army Worm on Pre-tassel Corn, photo by David Handley

Fall armyworm:  Moth activity is becoming spottier from site to site, with some locations well over the 3-moth threshold for silking corn, and others seeing few, if any moths. A spray for fall armyworm on silking corn was recommended in one Dayton site, Nobleboro, Poland Spring and Wales. Other sites, including Auburn, Biddeford, Cape Elizabeth, Dayton, Lewiston, Monmouth, North Berwick, and Sabattus were also over the 3-moth threshold, but are on a spray schedule for corn earworm. No sites were over the 15% injury threshold for larval feeding damage in pre-tassel to tassel corn.

Annual end of corn season checklist:

  1. Plow down corn stalks and stubble to destroy overwintering larvae of European corn borer.
  2. Plant a cover crop, such as winter rye, to prevent soil erosion and to add organic matter to the soil.
  3. Take a soil test to determine if lime or other nutrients should be applied.
  4. Plan to rotate your crops to prevent pests from building up in any one location.
  5. Evaluate your weed management results. What worked well and what didn’t?  Which weeds were the biggest problems?  How can you improve control?

Unplowed Corn Field

Unplowed Corn Field, photo by David Handley

Oats Cover Crop

Oats Cover Crop, photo by David Handley

The New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference will be held in Manchester, NH on December 12, 13, and 14, 2017. Program and registration information will be coming soon. Visit the website: http://www.newenglandvfc.org/.

Reminder: Free disposal of unusable pesticides
The Maine Board of Pesticides Control (BPC) and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) are sponsoring the Obsolete Pesticides Collection Program. This free program is open to homeowners, family-owned farms and greenhouses. Collections of unwanted pesticides will occur at four sites: Presque Isle, Bangor, Augusta, and Portland. Participants must pre-register by September 29, 2017Drop-ins are not permitted. To register, get details, and learn important information about the temporary storage and transportation of obsolete pesticides, go to the Maine BPC web site or call 207.287.2731.

Sincerely,

David T. Handley
Vegetable and Small Fruit Specialist

Highmoor Farm                      Pest Management Office
P.O. Box 179                             491 College Avenue
Monmouth, ME  04259         Orono, ME  04473
207.933.2100                           1.800.287.0279

Sweet Corn IPM Weekly Scouting Summary

Location CEW
Moths
ECB
Moths
FAW
Moths
%Feeding
Damage
Recommendations / Comments
Auburn 5 0 10 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Biddeford 8 0 7 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Bowdoinham 0 0 0 No spray recommended
Cape Elizabeth I 25 0 38 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Cape Elizabeth II 8 0 17 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Dayton I 41 0 107 0% 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Dayton II 0 0 5 One spray for FAW on all silking corn
Lewiston 15 0 4 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Monmouth 12 0 9 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
New Gloucester 6 0 0 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Nobleboro 0 0 42 One spray for FAW on all silking corn
North Berwick 4 0 3 3% 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Oxford 1 0 2 No spray recommended
Poland Spring 0 0 12 One spray for FAW on all silking corn
Sabattus 14 0 7 4-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Wales 0 0 5 One spray for FAW on all silking corn
Wayne 0 0 0 No spray recommended
Wells I 5 0 2 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn
Wells II 4 0 2 9% 5-day spray interval recommended on all silking corn

CEW: Corn earworm (Only fresh silking corn should be sprayed for this insect.)
ECB: European corn borer
FAW: Fall armyworm

Corn Earworm Spray Thresholds for Pheromone Traps

Moths caught per week Moths caught per night Spray interval
0.0 to 1.4 0.0 to 0.2 No spray
1.5 to 3.5 0.3 to 0.5 Spray every 6 days
3.6 to 7.0 0.6 to 1.0 Spray every 5 days
7.1 to 91 1.1 to 13.0 Spray every 4 days
More than 91 More than 13 Spray every 3 days

Thresholds apply only to corn with exposed fresh silk. Lengthen spray intervals by one day if maximum daily temperature is less than 80°F.

European Corn Borer Thresholds
Whorl stage: 30% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Pre-tassel-silk: 15% or more of plants scouted show injury.
Silk: 5 or more moths caught in pheromone traps in one week.

IPM Web Pages:
UMaine Cooperative Extension IPM
Penn State Sweet Corn IPM
UMass Extension IPM Programs

Where brand names or company names are used it is for the reader’s information. No endorsement is implied nor is any discrimination intended against other products with similar ingredients. Always consult product labels for rates, application instructions and safety precautions. Users of these products assume all associated risks.

The University of Maine is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.